Source code for urllib3.util.retry

from __future__ import annotations

import email
import logging
import random
import re
import time
import typing
from itertools import takewhile
from types import TracebackType

from ..exceptions import (
from .util import reraise

if typing.TYPE_CHECKING:
    from typing_extensions import Self

    from ..connectionpool import ConnectionPool
    from ..response import BaseHTTPResponse

log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

# Data structure for representing the metadata of requests that result in a retry.
class RequestHistory(typing.NamedTuple):
    method: str | None
    url: str | None
    error: Exception | None
    status: int | None
    redirect_location: str | None

[docs] class Retry: """Retry configuration. Each retry attempt will create a new Retry object with updated values, so they can be safely reused. Retries can be defined as a default for a pool: .. code-block:: python retries = Retry(connect=5, read=2, redirect=5) http = PoolManager(retries=retries) response = http.request("GET", "") Or per-request (which overrides the default for the pool): .. code-block:: python response = http.request("GET", "", retries=Retry(10)) Retries can be disabled by passing ``False``: .. code-block:: python response = http.request("GET", "", retries=False) Errors will be wrapped in :class:`~urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError` unless retries are disabled, in which case the causing exception will be raised. :param int total: Total number of retries to allow. Takes precedence over other counts. Set to ``None`` to remove this constraint and fall back on other counts. Set to ``0`` to fail on the first retry. Set to ``False`` to disable and imply ``raise_on_redirect=False``. :param int connect: How many connection-related errors to retry on. These are errors raised before the request is sent to the remote server, which we assume has not triggered the server to process the request. Set to ``0`` to fail on the first retry of this type. :param int read: How many times to retry on read errors. These errors are raised after the request was sent to the server, so the request may have side-effects. Set to ``0`` to fail on the first retry of this type. :param int redirect: How many redirects to perform. Limit this to avoid infinite redirect loops. A redirect is a HTTP response with a status code 301, 302, 303, 307 or 308. Set to ``0`` to fail on the first retry of this type. Set to ``False`` to disable and imply ``raise_on_redirect=False``. :param int status: How many times to retry on bad status codes. These are retries made on responses, where status code matches ``status_forcelist``. Set to ``0`` to fail on the first retry of this type. :param int other: How many times to retry on other errors. Other errors are errors that are not connect, read, redirect or status errors. These errors might be raised after the request was sent to the server, so the request might have side-effects. Set to ``0`` to fail on the first retry of this type. If ``total`` is not set, it's a good idea to set this to 0 to account for unexpected edge cases and avoid infinite retry loops. :param Collection allowed_methods: Set of uppercased HTTP method verbs that we should retry on. By default, we only retry on methods which are considered to be idempotent (multiple requests with the same parameters end with the same state). See :attr:`Retry.DEFAULT_ALLOWED_METHODS`. Set to a ``None`` value to retry on any verb. :param Collection status_forcelist: A set of integer HTTP status codes that we should force a retry on. A retry is initiated if the request method is in ``allowed_methods`` and the response status code is in ``status_forcelist``. By default, this is disabled with ``None``. :param float backoff_factor: A backoff factor to apply between attempts after the second try (most errors are resolved immediately by a second try without a delay). urllib3 will sleep for:: {backoff factor} * (2 ** ({number of previous retries})) seconds. If `backoff_jitter` is non-zero, this sleep is extended by:: random.uniform(0, {backoff jitter}) seconds. For example, if the backoff_factor is 0.1, then :func:`Retry.sleep` will sleep for [0.0s, 0.2s, 0.4s, 0.8s, ...] between retries. No backoff will ever be longer than `backoff_max`. By default, backoff is disabled (factor set to 0). :param bool raise_on_redirect: Whether, if the number of redirects is exhausted, to raise a MaxRetryError, or to return a response with a response code in the 3xx range. :param bool raise_on_status: Similar meaning to ``raise_on_redirect``: whether we should raise an exception, or return a response, if status falls in ``status_forcelist`` range and retries have been exhausted. :param tuple history: The history of the request encountered during each call to :meth:`~Retry.increment`. The list is in the order the requests occurred. Each list item is of class :class:`RequestHistory`. :param bool respect_retry_after_header: Whether to respect Retry-After header on status codes defined as :attr:`Retry.RETRY_AFTER_STATUS_CODES` or not. :param Collection remove_headers_on_redirect: Sequence of headers to remove from the request when a response indicating a redirect is returned before firing off the redirected request. """ #: Default methods to be used for ``allowed_methods`` DEFAULT_ALLOWED_METHODS = frozenset( ["HEAD", "GET", "PUT", "DELETE", "OPTIONS", "TRACE"] ) #: Default status codes to be used for ``status_forcelist`` RETRY_AFTER_STATUS_CODES = frozenset([413, 429, 503]) #: Default headers to be used for ``remove_headers_on_redirect`` DEFAULT_REMOVE_HEADERS_ON_REDIRECT = frozenset( ["Cookie", "Authorization", "Proxy-Authorization"] ) #: Default maximum backoff time. DEFAULT_BACKOFF_MAX = 120 # Backward compatibility; assigned outside of the class. DEFAULT: typing.ClassVar[Retry] def __init__( self, total: bool | int | None = 10, connect: int | None = None, read: int | None = None, redirect: bool | int | None = None, status: int | None = None, other: int | None = None, allowed_methods: typing.Collection[str] | None = DEFAULT_ALLOWED_METHODS, status_forcelist: typing.Collection[int] | None = None, backoff_factor: float = 0, backoff_max: float = DEFAULT_BACKOFF_MAX, raise_on_redirect: bool = True, raise_on_status: bool = True, history: tuple[RequestHistory, ...] | None = None, respect_retry_after_header: bool = True, remove_headers_on_redirect: typing.Collection[ str ] = DEFAULT_REMOVE_HEADERS_ON_REDIRECT, backoff_jitter: float = 0.0, ) -> None: = total self.connect = connect = read self.status = status self.other = other if redirect is False or total is False: redirect = 0 raise_on_redirect = False self.redirect = redirect self.status_forcelist = status_forcelist or set() self.allowed_methods = allowed_methods self.backoff_factor = backoff_factor self.backoff_max = backoff_max self.raise_on_redirect = raise_on_redirect self.raise_on_status = raise_on_status self.history = history or () self.respect_retry_after_header = respect_retry_after_header self.remove_headers_on_redirect = frozenset( h.lower() for h in remove_headers_on_redirect ) self.backoff_jitter = backoff_jitter def new(self, **kw: typing.Any) -> Self: params = dict(, connect=self.connect,, redirect=self.redirect, status=self.status, other=self.other, allowed_methods=self.allowed_methods, status_forcelist=self.status_forcelist, backoff_factor=self.backoff_factor, backoff_max=self.backoff_max, raise_on_redirect=self.raise_on_redirect, raise_on_status=self.raise_on_status, history=self.history, remove_headers_on_redirect=self.remove_headers_on_redirect, respect_retry_after_header=self.respect_retry_after_header, backoff_jitter=self.backoff_jitter, ) params.update(kw) return type(self)(**params) # type: ignore[arg-type]
[docs] @classmethod def from_int( cls, retries: Retry | bool | int | None, redirect: bool | int | None = True, default: Retry | bool | int | None = None, ) -> Retry: """Backwards-compatibility for the old retries format.""" if retries is None: retries = default if default is not None else cls.DEFAULT if isinstance(retries, Retry): return retries redirect = bool(redirect) and None new_retries = cls(retries, redirect=redirect) log.debug("Converted retries value: %r -> %r", retries, new_retries) return new_retries
[docs] def get_backoff_time(self) -> float: """Formula for computing the current backoff :rtype: float """ # We want to consider only the last consecutive errors sequence (Ignore redirects). consecutive_errors_len = len( list( takewhile(lambda x: x.redirect_location is None, reversed(self.history)) ) ) if consecutive_errors_len <= 1: return 0 backoff_value = self.backoff_factor * (2 ** (consecutive_errors_len - 1)) if self.backoff_jitter != 0.0: backoff_value += random.random() * self.backoff_jitter return float(max(0, min(self.backoff_max, backoff_value)))
def parse_retry_after(self, retry_after: str) -> float: seconds: float # Whitespace: if re.match(r"^\s*[0-9]+\s*$", retry_after): seconds = int(retry_after) else: retry_date_tuple = email.utils.parsedate_tz(retry_after) if retry_date_tuple is None: raise InvalidHeader(f"Invalid Retry-After header: {retry_after}") retry_date = email.utils.mktime_tz(retry_date_tuple) seconds = retry_date - time.time() seconds = max(seconds, 0) return seconds
[docs] def get_retry_after(self, response: BaseHTTPResponse) -> float | None: """Get the value of Retry-After in seconds.""" retry_after = response.headers.get("Retry-After") if retry_after is None: return None return self.parse_retry_after(retry_after)
def sleep_for_retry(self, response: BaseHTTPResponse) -> bool: retry_after = self.get_retry_after(response) if retry_after: time.sleep(retry_after) return True return False def _sleep_backoff(self) -> None: backoff = self.get_backoff_time() if backoff <= 0: return time.sleep(backoff)
[docs] def sleep(self, response: BaseHTTPResponse | None = None) -> None: """Sleep between retry attempts. This method will respect a server's ``Retry-After`` response header and sleep the duration of the time requested. If that is not present, it will use an exponential backoff. By default, the backoff factor is 0 and this method will return immediately. """ if self.respect_retry_after_header and response: slept = self.sleep_for_retry(response) if slept: return self._sleep_backoff()
def _is_connection_error(self, err: Exception) -> bool: """Errors when we're fairly sure that the server did not receive the request, so it should be safe to retry. """ if isinstance(err, ProxyError): err = err.original_error return isinstance(err, ConnectTimeoutError) def _is_read_error(self, err: Exception) -> bool: """Errors that occur after the request has been started, so we should assume that the server began processing it. """ return isinstance(err, (ReadTimeoutError, ProtocolError)) def _is_method_retryable(self, method: str) -> bool: """Checks if a given HTTP method should be retried upon, depending if it is included in the allowed_methods """ if self.allowed_methods and method.upper() not in self.allowed_methods: return False return True
[docs] def is_retry( self, method: str, status_code: int, has_retry_after: bool = False ) -> bool: """Is this method/status code retryable? (Based on allowlists and control variables such as the number of total retries to allow, whether to respect the Retry-After header, whether this header is present, and whether the returned status code is on the list of status codes to be retried upon on the presence of the aforementioned header) """ if not self._is_method_retryable(method): return False if self.status_forcelist and status_code in self.status_forcelist: return True return bool( and self.respect_retry_after_header and has_retry_after and (status_code in self.RETRY_AFTER_STATUS_CODES) )
[docs] def is_exhausted(self) -> bool: """Are we out of retries?""" retry_counts = [ x for x in (, self.connect,, self.redirect, self.status, self.other, ) if x ] if not retry_counts: return False return min(retry_counts) < 0
[docs] def increment( self, method: str | None = None, url: str | None = None, response: BaseHTTPResponse | None = None, error: Exception | None = None, _pool: ConnectionPool | None = None, _stacktrace: TracebackType | None = None, ) -> Self: """Return a new Retry object with incremented retry counters. :param response: A response object, or None, if the server did not return a response. :type response: :class:`~urllib3.response.BaseHTTPResponse` :param Exception error: An error encountered during the request, or None if the response was received successfully. :return: A new ``Retry`` object. """ if is False and error: # Disabled, indicate to re-raise the error. raise reraise(type(error), error, _stacktrace) total = if total is not None: total -= 1 connect = self.connect read = redirect = self.redirect status_count = self.status other = self.other cause = "unknown" status = None redirect_location = None if error and self._is_connection_error(error): # Connect retry? if connect is False: raise reraise(type(error), error, _stacktrace) elif connect is not None: connect -= 1 elif error and self._is_read_error(error): # Read retry? if read is False or method is None or not self._is_method_retryable(method): raise reraise(type(error), error, _stacktrace) elif read is not None: read -= 1 elif error: # Other retry? if other is not None: other -= 1 elif response and response.get_redirect_location(): # Redirect retry? if redirect is not None: redirect -= 1 cause = "too many redirects" response_redirect_location = response.get_redirect_location() if response_redirect_location: redirect_location = response_redirect_location status = response.status else: # Incrementing because of a server error like a 500 in # status_forcelist and the given method is in the allowed_methods cause = ResponseError.GENERIC_ERROR if response and response.status: if status_count is not None: status_count -= 1 cause = ResponseError.SPECIFIC_ERROR.format(status_code=response.status) status = response.status history = self.history + ( RequestHistory(method, url, error, status, redirect_location), ) new_retry = total=total, connect=connect, read=read, redirect=redirect, status=status_count, other=other, history=history, ) if new_retry.is_exhausted(): reason = error or ResponseError(cause) raise MaxRetryError(_pool, url, reason) from reason # type: ignore[arg-type] log.debug("Incremented Retry for (url='%s'): %r", url, new_retry) return new_retry
def __repr__(self) -> str: return ( f"{type(self).__name__}(total={}, connect={self.connect}, " f"read={}, redirect={self.redirect}, status={self.status})" )
# For backwards compatibility (equivalent to pre-v1.9): Retry.DEFAULT = Retry(3)